Understanding the Basics of Printed Circuit Boards Design

When it comes to designing printed circuit boards, there are some important factors to consider. PCBs are manually designed to create photomask using the patent mylar sheet. Through the help of schematic diagram, circuit boards are carefully produced to meet certain standards. Hence, our main goal here is to help you understand the basics of PCB design so that you will know how it really works. Due to the complexity of circuit connections, caution is needed to achieve the ideal output in the best possible way.

Initially, printed circuit boards are created using a mylar sheet to produce the photomask which is typically 2 to 4 times the original size. The entire process is guided by the schematic chart so that the manufacturer will accurately connect all components in the circuit board. Pin pads are positioned on the mylar sheet while tracing the pads to ensure electric connections. Common module footprints on rub-on, dry transfers are responsible for increasing PCB efficiency.

Steps in PCB Design and Assembly

The traces are created using self-adhesive tape while the pre-printed, non-producing lattices on the sheet support the layout. In fabricating the PCB, the completed photomask is photo-lithographically replicated onto the photoresist coating through the blank, copper clad boards. Hence, modern printed circuit boards are manufactured with devoted layout software. The following are the basic steps to follow:

  1. Schematic diagram capture using the electronic design automation or EDA tool.
  2. Card size as well as template is selected according to the required PCB case and circuitry.
  3. The heat sinks and component positioning techniques are established.
  4. PCB layer stack is determined along with the layers based on the complexity of the printed circuit boards. Power and ground planes are also identified. The power plane serves as the matching part of the ground plane, while the AC signal provides DC power required in the circuit connections. Signal interconnections will trace the signal planes included in the inner and outer layers.
  5. Line impedance will be determined through the use of dielectric layer width while routing the copper thickness as well as the trace width. The separation of traces is also important in handling differential signals. Stripline, dual stripline, and microstrip are used in routing signals within the circuit board.
  6. Components are positioned. Geometry and thermal considerations are done to secure operation. Lands and vias are marked as well.
  7. Signal traces will be directed while the automation tools take care of the electrical design. This will create connections and clearances in ground and power planes automatically.
  8. Gerber files will also be produced to manufacture PCBs.

 PCB Assembly When it comes to PCB fabrication, there are several steps to follow that will guarantee quality boards such as PCB CAM, panelization, copper patterning, subtractive-additive-semi-additive processing, chemical etching, inner layer automated optical inspection, lamination, drilling, plating and coating, solder resist application, legend printing, bare board testing, assembly, and protection and packaging. For PCB characteristics, most of the electrical PCB designs in the industry follow certain standards before they are released in the market.

In the early days, the first circuit boards utilized through-hole technology with mounted electrical components via leads inserted in the holes. On each side, they are soldered onto the copper traces to ensure operation. The boards can be single-sided with unplated components, or compact, double-sided boards with parts soldered on each side. Through-hole components horizontal installation may use 2-axial leads like diodes, capacitors, and resistors. It’s done through bended lead in a 90-degree orientation.

Other Features to Consider when Choosing a PCB Supplier

Through-hole PCBs almost totally substituted the earlier electrical assembly methods like the point to point construction. This type of fabrication also adds to the cost by involving many holes accurately drilled in the board. However, it limits the availability of routing areas needed in signal traces. After the surface-mounting is done, small sized SMD parts are used to mount necessary components. Thorough assembly techniques are needed in the production of circuit boards to properly manufacture quality PCBs in the market.

PCB Design

On the other hand, surface mount technology is used in mechanically redesigning the meta tabs for direct soldering purposes. Components are made smaller to provide convenient PCBs generally used in portable devices. Hence, this type has been more popularly used by manufacturers than the through-hole mounting technique. This ideally allows much smaller assemblies of PCBs while providing higher circuit density. Components may be supplied-mounted through carrier tapes. Some wire ended components are significantly more affordable compared to SMD equivalents.

If you have questions and other related concerns regarding PCB fabrication and design, you can check out our website. We also encourage you to do some research before you choose a PCB company that will supply for you. In fact, it’s a huge investment to buy circuit boards so making a well-informed decision is a must.

 Author Bio

If you want to know more about printed circuit boards basics design and fabrication, so can visit our website pcbnet.com. We offers high quality printed circuit board fabrication and assembly.

Custom challenge coins crafted ensuring 100% customer satisfaction

An activity done with the intention to make time pass is called a hobby. Hobby plus the ability or skill to create an object with an artistic hand is crafting. In today’s world wherein people learn to love anything that is pleasing to the eyes means business! An in demand business out of crafting is personalizing things. A very common item that is being customized are coins. Yes! Coins.

Custom challenge coins are crafted out of high quality materials with fine details and different sparkling colors that can be a perfect representation of you, your business, or any organization that you are in. Long ago these coins were exclusively associated with military organizations, but because technology plays a big role in our world today and people now desire something unique, it is no longer limited to one organization. Anyone can have customized coins whether it is just for collection or for gift giving purposes.

There are many growing businesses out in the market that customize stuff like coins:

When talking about customizing your own item of course you will look for the very best. A company that will craft your custom challenge coins that will provide high quality product, 100% customer satisfaction and of course, at a very reasonable price. Well if you are looking for that company, Challenge coins 4less is the answer!

Custom Challenge Coins Design

With years of experience customizing challenge coins, we are the company that will bring you 100% satisfaction. We aim to make the best custom coin that will suit your needs. Being sure of what you want to come out is our mission, so before we craft the design on your mind we will draft the design and wait for your approval. Once we meet halfway and agree on all the terms and conditions plus the price, we will now start crafting your customized challenge coins. We don’t want your precious time to be put to waste.

You are free to put your idea and imagination about what you want your coin to look like:

You are free to choose the shape, the type of material to be used, and we will provide options for you. Whether you want your coins to be in your own shape or we can turn them into bottle or can openers. You can freely play with your idea and enjoy designing your coin. Just provide us all the necessary information in order for us to craft your perfect coin exclusively designed for you.

Because customer satisfaction is our top priority, you will never receive your custom challenge coin bare naked.  The finished product will rest into a beautiful packaging. We came up to four types of packaging to ensure the safety and protection of your precious custom challenge coins. All you have to do is select what type of packaging of your coin without worrying about how much it costs. Perfection and beauty doesn’t always mean that you have to spend a lot.

Custom Challenge Coins

It will be our pride and honor to assist you on making the designing and ordering of your custom coins quick, easy and hassle free.  Let us know what we can do to assist you in placing your order.  We provide free artwork and design services as well as free shipping to your door step.

If still in doubt of who to choose in crafting your custom challenge coins, we can offer you a free quote and free art work. Our highly trained and customer friendly representatives will be glad to assist you 24/7. You don’t have to worry about the charge. We are serious when we say free quote. So don’t feel obliged to order if you don’t feel the need to do so. But if you are ready to place your order we will send you a draft of your design.

We want you to be satisfied with the service and products you receive from us.  We value our customers so feedback is very important to us. You are free to leave your feedback, just contact us. This will help us so much in ensuring 100% customer satisfaction.

Tips to Consider When Purchasing Custom Lanyards

If you’re buying custom lanyards for the first time, do not worry, we’re here to help you out. Our company prides itself in providing customers with reliable products at affordable prices and in having the finest customer support team in the industry. We offer high quality lanyards in different styles, colors and material, with different attachment options. We also have badge holders which you can get together with your lanyards to complete the setup.

But if you have little knowledge about lanyards and unsure as to what to do, we’ve come up with a list of tips to consider when you’re buying and customizing lanyards. This should help you determine whether the lanyard company can provide for the exact needs of your organization or not.Lanyard

Identify your needs

Before overwhelming yourself with all the lanyard options online, identify what your needs are first. Are your lanyards going to be used as giveaways for marketing purposes? Or are they to be used by your employees within the company’s premise? It is easy to just order a number of custom lanyards and wait for shipping only to realize they are an overkill. Knowing your lanyard needs beforehand will give you a clearer picture of the right type and amount of lanyards to order.

Get a product sample

If you’re looking for lanyard companies, you will surely find a lot on the web. There may be many companies that sell custom lanyards but only a few sell real good ones. We know you want high quality products, and one way, and perhaps the only way, to check if the company sells quality lanyards is by asking for a sample. Any company that is proud and confident about their products will be more than delighted to send you a free sample. Through this, you’ll be able to see the quality and type of lanyard that they sell.

Beware of hidden charges

Once you’re on the website of the lanyard company, most often than that, you’ll see their low prices in big, bold digits. But don’t get too excited just yet, investigate first. Are the prices published on their site all-inclusive? You might end up paying much more than what you expected if you make impulsive actions. On top of that low low price, the company may charge you of setup/mold fees, dyeing fees, design services fee, taxes and all that shebang. And after everything is added, your bill becomes twice as much. Do not get enticed by these companies’ tricks. Many people will do everything just to make a sale. Be smart. Beware of hidden charges.

Ask for turnaround time

And so you ordered your custom lanyards last week and were promised that the products will be delivered within a week. But it’s been two weeks, the lanyards are nowhere to be seen, your company’s event is about to start, your boss is yelling at you, you are totally duped. Save yourself this trouble. Prior to signing any contract, ask the lanyard company for their typical turnaround time to ensure that the lanyards get to you in time. However, this can be tricky. Of course, the company will tell you they can deliver in time just to close the sale when in fact, they cannot. So in choosing a lanyard company to work with, you also have to ensure that they have good reputation in the business.

Research about the company

Any company will present themselves as reliable, hardworking and highly experienced. But how do you know if there’s any truth behind that? An adequate research will do. Use the power of the internet to search for reviews or blog posts about that company. Make sure they are legit. You can get no better recommendation than from those people who have ordered and used the product. By doing a little research, you can also have an overview of the company’s history and see if they’ve been around providing customers with good products and services. It’s a simple effort that can go a long way.

Consider your budget

Custom lanyards are usually cheap but if you want to add more features to the design and include other attachments, the supplier may add fees as well. Sure we all want great-looking, premium quality lanyards, but you have to consider your budget as well. It always pays to be more realistic and reasonable. Find the lanyard type that suit to your budget, but this doesn’t mean you need to compromise quality. There are many lanyard companies who offer good quality products at a more cost-effective price. By clicking a few links here and there, you’ll eventually find the perfect fit.

Introduction To Golf Balls

Nowadays, the governing body of every sport strictly imposes rules and regulations encompassing the athlete’s behavior up to the playing equipment he uses. In fact, even a sport that involves no contact between the players such as golf requires more rigid rules when it comes to equipment as compared to other sports. Rockbottomgolf are provide the best options of Golf Balls.

Standardization of Golf Ball

Golf balls and golf clubs must first be tested by the two governing bodies of golf. These are the United States Golf Association whose in-charge with golf in the US and Mexico and The R&A, a group of companies that rule the said sport throughout the rest of the world.

Callaway Golf BallIn contrast, the testing and approval of golf clubs are less restrictive than those of golf balls. You can use any kind of golf ball for leisure or practice. However, a specific weight and diameter standards must be met for tournaments. If you are caught using a golf ball that didn’t pass the set standards, you will be given a penalty. The standard weight is 45.93 grams or 1.62 oz while the standard diameter is 42.67 mm or 1.68 in. Aside from this attributes, the performance of a golf ball is tested as well. Specifically, the authorities in golf will approve the symmetry limits, distance, and velocity of a ball.

Early Forms of Golf Ball

The earliest known golf balls were carved from wood. These were used in the first games of golf in the 16th century. In the first quarter of the succeeding century, small balls covered in cow or horsehide was stuffed with goose feather. The feather-stuffed balls were more preferred than wood-made balls because these were easier to make.

The popularity of the feather-stuffed balls lasted for more than a century. However, it was dethroned by another invention in the mid-1880s. A natural ingredient was again used, in the form of gutta sap. Gutta is a type of tree common in East Asian countries. The sap was shaped into a ball and the product was a rubber-like golf ball. This innovation became more popular than feather-stuffed balls because gutta-made balls, also known as Guttie, were better shaped.


After a decade, these early forms of golf balls were made using machines. But it had a disadvantage. Gutties were not as efficient as feather-stuffed balls when it comes to flight. Innovations were made after 10 more years. This time, a golf ball was covered in thread.

In the early 1990s, balls were modified by having lump-like protrusions. The change was supposed to enhance the ball’s flight. This change also led to the presence of dimples in the balls used in golf these days. The dimpled ones were found out to be better in enhancing the ball’s flight.


The Rules of Golf was produced and issued by the USGA and The R&A. Both of these organizations reserve the right to interpret the contents of the Rules of Golf. The rules for the ball are provided in Rule 5 of the said rule book. The Rules and Equipment Committee of The R&A collaborates with USGA for the revision and interpretation the Rules of Golf.

Aside from the aforementioned physical attributes of a golf ball, it must be listed as one of the per-approved golf balls first. Adding an element to enhance the ball’s flight is not allowed. It will cost a player a penalty in a game.

Golf balls

Any deformation or damage in a golf ball will be declared unsuitable for play. A replacement without penalty serves as a solution. You or your competitors may argue a deformed golf ball. However, you should tell your competitors first that you are going to inspect your golf ball. In addition, you have to indicate the location before you lift it. You are not allowed to clean the ball as well. If you missed one of these requisites, you will be given a one-stroke penalty.

There are additional rules for golf balls in the succeeding parts of the rule book. If you want to get proficient in this spot, you have to master the inspection of the balls. Otherwise, you may be given two-stroke penalty if you substituted a good golf ball with an unfit one.

Key transportation facilities for homes for sale in Garden City

Crucial to any house purchase decision is the availability of vital installations in the area. That includes, of course, a comprehensive, if not advanced, transportation system that can easily bring a resident from his/her house to any point in the metro. In this day and age where people are always on the go, busy with appointments, or endlessly catch up with deadlines, having a reliable transportation system is undeniably a necessity of paramount importance.

Consider this: You wake up in the morning, rev up your car early in the day, skip breakfast to get to your destination on time, only to be stuck in traffic – verily the thing you tried to avoid experiencing in the first place. Conversely, you wake up to catch the train or the bus or hail a cab, only to wait for a significant period of time for the transportation that wouldn’t seem to arrive. Such hassles are annoying, not to mention expensive, especially if such hassles need not exist to begin with.

What are the key transportation facilities for homes for sale in Garden City?

garden cityFor those who work in New York City, considering homes for sale in Garden City may be a good idea. The availability of an efficient and reliable rail line in the village, as well as key transportation facilities for homes for sale in Garden City, make the travel from Garden City to Manhattan more convenient and time-efficient. In fact, there are train stations in Garden City along the Hempstead line of the Long Island Rail Road or LIRR.

The LIRR, which is the second busiest commuter rail line in North America, runs the length of Long Island to Manhattan all the way to Suffolk County. The LIRR has a couple of stations in Garden City. These are Stewart Manor, Nassau Blvd., Garden City, and. The time it takes to commute from the village to Manhattan varies according to the rail branch used, but the ballpark figure hovers between 30 minutes to a little less than an hour.

Homes for sale in Garden City have the advantage of being close to an excellent transportation network that makes it easier to travel anywhere in the village, or even outside of it. Such convenience tends to be overlooked, but is in fact a very important consideration to think of, especially for people who are always on the go.

homeConsider that the time saved dodging commuting hassles can actually be used for more productive activities. Being able to do things without scrambling for time eases up unnecessary tension, not only physically but also when it comes to one’s relationship with others. Better time management and zero complications where there really should not be are key ingredients in developing a healthier lifestyle and a more positive outlook in life.

And this is where the sense of community comes in for the residents of Garden City. As an incorporated village, there are many clubs and organizations that residents could join depending on their interests and advocacy. Among these organizations are the Ethical Friends of Children, Friends of the Garden City Library, Inc., Garden City Basketball, Garden City Youth Lacrosse, Kiwanis Club of Garden City, Inc., Mollie Biggane Melanoma Fund, and the Theodore Roosevelt Council Boy Scouts, among others.

The vibrancy of life in Garden City and the ease with which residents could move about are what make snapping up homes for sale in Garden City a wise move.

The Search for a Motivational Speaker

Despite having planned all the way through, a group of like-minded people will almost definitely hit a state of stagnation. In this state, they are unable to move forward, and they are paralyzed by the stale information that they have. It can be frustrating, and in fact, most people would give up at this point. In group psychology, it has been found that brainstorming is better if it is done individually and then assessed in a group. Brainstorming as a group creates an atmosphere that is not conducive to creativity, mainly due to the social constraints a group creates.

A group would often fall to what psychologists call “group-think”, where the individuals in a group tend to think similarly, and polarized thoughts are shunned. Therefore, ideas get to bounce around again and again. Soon it turns stale, creating that sense that a meeting is “going nowhere”. Many businesses have failed because of this, and when a group is stuck in a situation such as this, the only way to move is to move forward. However, with stale information and lack of details, even moving forward becomes highly challenging.

What these groups need is the right information. With information, these groups get power, and they are able to push forward by conquering the state of stagnation.This is an age of saturated information, where a lot of people and companies claim to have the correct answer. Looking through the clutter of information, it can be said that there are a lot of conflicting views about almost everything. Due to the internet, anyone can claim to be an expert, and this causes the dilution of actual experts in the field. What people need is correct information, and what they need is the right person to share that information. They need a person who can discern whether or not something is valuable.

Motivational SpeakerFor a group to receive that kind of quality information, they need someone to deliver it to them in a way that is relevant to the times. Information that is not easily accessible can be extremely intimidating. This kind of information may even hinder a group to move forward due to it being hard to understand. It is true that with knowledge comes power, but without the understanding of this knowledge, it is rendered useless. Any group seeking to move forward with fresh new information needs someone to guide them through the sea of unintelligible details. The best person to do this is a motivational speaker.

A motivational-speaker-success.com is an expert in this general field. He has a bird’s eye view of almost everything, and he has the necessary information to help a group move forward. However, it can’t be just any motivational speaker. Again, in this day and age, many people claim to be experts. Many people claim to be good motivational speakers, when in fact they do not have the charisma necessary to pull it off. A motivational speaker must have the charm, the wit, and the humour to deliver intimidating information in a light, customized way. That speaker must be able to tailor the information so that it would fit the group he is talking to. It is good to know a lot of things, but it is only wise men who can discern which of these things are valuable or useful.

The right keynote speaker is difficult to find, but the search is over. Influence expert Garrison Wynn knows what is valuable. He can show groups what other successful groups have done, and he can lend a helping hand. He delivers results-driven information with professional humour, allowing an easier understanding of intimidating concepts and difficult ideas. But he won’t stop there. Most motivational speakers simply deliver numbers and details that everyone else has used. Most motivational speakers will talk about the methods that every other group has done to walk the path that everyone else has walked on.

If a group wants to innovate and in fact change the world in their own way, they will need a motivational speaker who understands this.

Garrison Wynn goes above and beyond what is usual. He moves through the ordinary and shows the unlimited possibilities that are open for groups that want to forge their own paths. Each program is special, and delivered with a specific group in mind. His areas of expertise include leadership, customer service, employee engagement, sales, communication, diversity, education, team building, and health care.Garrison Wynn knows success. Garrison Wynn can help groups win.

HCG as a Life-Altering Hormone

Human chorionic gonadotropin, or HCG, is a glycoprotein substance consisting of 237 amino acids, 92 of which comprise the alpha subunit with the remaining 145 distributed to its beta subunit. It has a molecular mass of 5.7 kDa.

woman-using-hcg-injectionHCG and other glycoprotein hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) share a common alpha subunit and possess specific beta units unique to their G protein-linked receptors. HCG shares chemical similarity with LH and mimics its mechanical action, a relationship that has been useful in the development of medical therapies like assisted reproductive techniques and medical treatments of underdeveloped testes and inadequate testosterone levels. HCG binds to receptors on the Leydig cells, stimulating the production and release of testosterone in cases where the male is unable to produce normal levels of the hormone. Commonly known as the pregnancy hormone, HCG binds with the LHCG receptors of the ovary to maintain the corpus luteum and continue its progesterone production to support the implanting embryo. HCG performs a pivotal role in ensuring the viability of life in the first trimester of pregnancy.

The LH mimicking actions of HCG are applied in sports medicine to help athletes develop the desired muscle bulk and elevate testosterone production in cases where the body feedback mechanisms inhibit the luteinizing hormone from stimulating the secretion of the male hormone. HCG is popularly used as an adjunct to anabolic androgenic steroids, performance enhancing substances, which place the body on a negative feedback mode when injected in elevated levels. The body’s regulatory systems respond by shutting off the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the cessation of testosterone secretion. HCG has been beneficial in the relief of side effects linked to steroids usage and prevents deterioration that may arise from testosterone deprivation, including testicular degeneration in size and functions.

HCG is widely used in fertility therapies. It increases the probability of ovulation and conception in women, and treats male sterility when the cause is inadequate testosterone levels.

In recent years, the world is buzzing with the revival of the HCG Diet popularized by Dr. A.T.W. Simeons, a British endocrinologist, who was the first doctor to recognize the function of the hormone in activating the hypothalamus to secrete excessive and abnormal fat deposits. Combining the low dose of the hormone to a 500-calorie per day diet, his study showed that the subjects lost fats instead of lean muscles. He endorsed the HCG Diet Protocol as a treatment for those who are suffering from obesity as it promotes rapid weight loss resulting from fat loss.

Side Effects of HCG Treatments

About 25% of women receiving HCG shots in fertility treatments experience mild forms of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) which include diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, and tenderness. There are rare cases of severe attacks, and symptoms may range from acute abdominal pain to serious breathing difficulties. Fluid retention and edema may also occur, as well as pain and tenderness in the breast. These side effects should end when the body learns to adjust to the HCG shots.

HCG injections can alter hormonal balance, affecting the mood of the patient as well as mental conditions. Irritability, restlessness, and depression are quite common.

Sources of HCG

The Human chorionic gonadotrophin preparations may be processed using the urinary source or through the recombinant DNA technology.
The universal availability of the urinary source makes it the sensible and preferred choice for the past decades. The process involves collecting traces of HCG in pregnant women’s urine, purifying, sanitizing, and processing the hormone into a potent preparation that’s fit for injection or administration into the body. Processing is done in an FDA-approved laboratory.

The HCG Diet Protocol – Is it Safe?

The HCG Diet Protocol is based on the model popularized by Dr. Simeons, with some modifications to ensure its safety and effectiveness.

There are now two available treatment options for the weight loss program – the HCG Drops and HCG Shots. Both are effective in treating obesity and promoting rapid weight loss when combined with very low calorie diets prescribed in the protocol.

The HCG shots typically require prescription and doctor’s supervision, which make it expensive and inconvenient for many.
The HCG drops are sublingual mixtures that may be administered at home by the patient himself, are affordable, and does not require prescription because it is not injected. The HCG drops have less, or none, of the side effects that are associated with HCG injections.

Our HCG Diet Protocol uses HCG Drops and delivers rapid and safe weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds daily when combined with our 500-calorie diet program. You are guaranteed to lose unsightly fats in buttocks, necks, hips, belly, and thighs, the areas where it matter most to your overall looks and confidence.

Our program is flexible; you can lose as many pounds as you want. It is sustainable, and with our guidance, you can continue to keep the pounds off and be fit for life.

Join our network and enjoy earning and huge discounts by losing those unwanted bulges, keeping yourself healthy and physically fit, and sharing your experience with the world.